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                                                  TESTING FOR GENETIC MARKERS:

Animal Genetics, Inc.

1336 Timberlane Road, Tallahassee, FL 32312       850-386-2973      www.AnimalGenetics.us


French Bulldog ~ CMR1, DM, HUU, JHC  

$140 when you test for the full panel
Call them and ask for sample collection kits.

Canine Multifocal Retinopathy (CMR) – CMR1

Canine Multifocal Retinopathy (CMR) is an autosomal recessive eye disorder known to affect Great Pyrenees, English Mastiffs, Bullmastiffs, Australian Shepherds, Dogue de Bordeaux, English Bulldogs, French Bulldogs, American Bulldogs, Coton de Tulears, Perro de Presa Canario, and Cane Corsos.

The mutation causes raised lesions to form on the retina which alters the appearance of the eye but usually does not affect sight. The lesions may disappear, or may result in minor retinal folding. Symptoms of the mutation usually appear when a puppy is only a few months old, and generally do not worsen over time.

CMR is recessive, so both parents would need to be carriers of the mutation to produce an affected puppy. "Clear" CMR dogs do not carry the mutation for the disorder. Breeding two clears or one clear and one carrier will not produce affected offspring, however if one parent is a carrier, a percentage of the offspring will be carriers. Therefore, it is useful to test for the presence of the CMR mutation before breeding. Additionally, since retinal defects can be caused by other conditions, testing can verify that a dog actually has CMR rather than some other eye condition.

Degenerative Myelopathy (DM)

Degenerative Myelopathy (DM) is a progressive neurological disorder that affects the spinal cord of dogs. Dogs that have inherited two defective copies will experience a breakdown of the cells responsible for sending and receiving signals from the brain, resulting in neurological symptoms.

The disease often begins with an unsteady gait, and the dog may wobble when they attempt to walk. As the disease progresses, the dog's hind legs will weaken and eventually the dog will be unable to walk at all. Degenerative Myelopathy moves up the body, so if the disease is allowed to progress, the dog will eventually be unable to hold his bladder and will lose normal function in its front legs. Fortunately, there is no direct pain associated with Degenerative Myelopathy.

The onset of Degenerative Myelopathy generally occurs later in life starting at an average age of about 10 years. However, some dogs may begin experiencing symptoms much earlier. A percentage of dogs that have inherited two copies of the mutation will not experience symptoms at all. Thus, this disease is not completely penetrant, meaning that while a dog with the mutation is likely to develop Degenerative Myelopathy, the disease does not affect every dog that has the genotype.

Hyperuricosuria (HUU)

Dogs with this genetic mutation metabolize waste products as uric acid in their urine. The uric acid forms into hard stones in the bladder, causing pain and inflammation as the stone moves through the urinary tract.

A dog that has difficulty urinating or appears to have an inflamed bladder may have HUU. Other signs can include blood in the urine and frequent urination. If the dog is unable to pass the urate stones without medical intervention, surgery may be required to remove them. And if the urinary tract is blocked, the condition can be life threatening. Even in the best case scenario, HUU is uncomfortable and painful for the dog.

The mutation is autosomal recessive. Both parents will need to be carriers of the mutation to pass it on to their offspring. Carriers will not show any symptoms of HUU and even affected dogs may not show any signs, so it is important to test dogs for HUU prior to breeding.

Juvenile Hereditary Cataracts (HSF4)(JHC)

Juvenile Hereditary Cataracts (JHC) are a clouding of the lens of the eye caused by a breakdown of tissue in the eye. This condition generally results in an inability to see clearly and can cause total blindness. In canines, cataracts are often familial; this type is known as Hereditary Cataracts. A mutation in the HSF4 gene causes this type of cataracts in several breeds of dogs. In this case, the dog is typically affected bilaterally, in that both eyes are affected by the cataracts. The cataracts associated with HSF4 also occur in the posterior region of the lens. They usually start by being small and grow progressively, though the speed of growth is highly variable. Some cataracts will grow so slowly that the dog's vision remains relatively clear, while others will grow such a way that the dog will quickly go blind. Corrective surgery is possible, though it is costly and is not always effective.

One HSF4 mutation causes the recessive form of Juvenile Hereditary Cataracts in Boston Terriers, Staffordshire Bull Terriers, and French Bulldogs. Because it is recessive, a dog must have two copies of this mutation to experience this form of cataracts. This mutation is only responsible for early-onset hereditary cataracts, which typically occur between 12 months and 3 years of age in Staffordshires, and between 2-3 years in Boston Terriers. Boston Terriers can also be afflicted by late-onset hereditary cataracts; however, the HSF4 gene mutation is not responsible for that particular form of cataracts. The causative gene for Late-onset Hereditary Cataracts in Boston Terriers has not been determined at this time..

It should also be noted that not all cataracts are hereditary. Cataracts can also be caused by old age or injury. Also, cataracts that occur in different regions of the lens can also be familial, however, are not attributed to this gene mutation.Type your paragraph here.


VetGen

3728 Plaza Dr,  Ste 1, Ann Arbor, MI  48108.      734-669-8440    vetgen@vetgen.com     www.vetgen.com


French Bulldog ~ Cystinuria

$65     Call them or go on their site to pre-order collection kits.


Cystinuria


This is an inherited autosomal recessive disease that is characterized by high concentrations of the amino acid cysteine in the urine, leading to the formation of cystine stones in the kidneys, ureter, and bladder.  It is a type of aminoaciduria.


Pairing Outcomes ... aka Cheat Sheet


****Keep in mind these are statistics, and with our small litter size in Frenchies, stats don't always play out exactly as they should.

****statistically only 50% of these puppies produced will be male puppies


                              ____CLEAR TO CLEAR______             ___CLEAR TO CARRIER ___            __CLEAR TO AFFECTED__  

                                            = 100% clear                                    = 50% clear; 50% carrier                          = 100% carrier


                                     CARRIER TO CARRIER____               CARRIER TO AFFECTED__              AFFECTED TO AFFECTED

                              = 25% clear; 50% carrier, 25%           = 50% carrier; 50% affected                      = 100% affected

                              (12.5% affected BOY puppies)           (25% affected BOY puppies)                  (50% BOY puppies)


Once you have tested your puppy parents with clear or negative results, you will be able to DNA your puppies and register them "by parentage" by submitting the parents' test results to OFA.  So... for example, if your parents are both clear on HUU, DM and CMR1, and you get clear genetic testing results on the baby for Cystinuria and JHC, you can register the HUU, DM and CMR1 with OFA "by parentage" and not have to retest the puppies.  And you can send your "clear" test results on Cystinuria and JHC on the puppy to OFA.  

If you have any questions on this process, email Linda Oresto at DulcineaBulldogs@gmail.com or call/text her 813-312-7399.


                                                                                                         TESTING FOR OFA:


Animals must be permanently identified via microchip or tattoo in order to qualify for CHIC Registry, OFA and AKC DNA.

You can buy a DNA kit on the AKC site for $45 and send the swab and paperwork in to them.  It's about a 2 month wait for results.

Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) is where you will send your testing. They have the application forms on their site for you to download and take to your Veterinarian.  For Frenchies, the requirements are for Hip, Eye, Patellas and Cardiology, with additional recommendations for Thyroid and Juvenile Cataracts.


    If you have any questions on these processes, please feel free to contact Linda Oresto

            by email:  DulcineaBulldogs@gmail.com       or call/text her at:  813-312-7399



The health of our French Bulldogs is very important to our Club members.  Here you will find information on tests and testing facilities, to assist breeders in making the best breeding choices to preserve the soundness and overall well being of our "frog dogs"!

(Please note:  the testing facilities listed below are not the ONLY facilities available.)